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2018 25/Jan

Celiac disease or gluten-sensitive enteropathy is an autoimmune disorder, which is frequently associated with the follow autoimmune conditions: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Hashimoto’s thyroiditis Autoimmune hepatitis Addison disease Arthritis Sjögren’s syndrome Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy IgA nephropathy Thyroid disease (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis) and Type 1 Diabetes are the most common disorders associated with celiac […]

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2018 25/Jan

Apoptosis is a specialized form of programmed cell death, characterized by lack of inflammatory response. It is an active process regulated by proteins that often affects only single cells or small groups of cells. So, what is the biochemical pathway leading to apoptosis? Activation of caspases cascade. Caspase activation is the crucial step because caspases […]

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2018 18/Jan

Amyloidosis is a group of the conditions characterized by extracellular and intracellular deposition of an insoluble protein called amyloid fibrils. Deposits of abnormal amyloid alter the normal function of tissues. The diagnosis requires tissue biopsy (needs to be congo-red positive) usually take from the rectum or abdominal fat pads. What is Amyloid? Around 90 percent […]

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2018 17/Jan

Definition: severe elevation in WBC (> 50,000 cells/mm³) caused by reactive causes outside the bone marrow. It’s a normal physiologic response to infection or stress. The diagnostic workup consists of the exclusion of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and the detection of an underlying cause. The diagnosis characteristics are marked mature […]

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2018 15/Jan

The differences between RBBB and LBBB in ECG are more simple than you imagine!. Just follow two simple steps: QRS duration greater than or equal to 120 ms in adults (>0.12 sec or >3 small boxes), greater than 100 ms in children 4 to 16 years of age, and greater than 90 ms in children […]

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2018 15/Jan

Classical findings of Pericarditis in ECG are: Diffuse ST-segment elevation and PR-segment depression ST-segment depression in aVR or V1 Low voltage, classically defined as total amplitude of the QRS complex less than 0.5 mv in the limb leads and less than 1 mv in the precordial leads Absence of reciprocal ST-segment changes For more ECG […]

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2018 11/Jan

Headache is defining as a pain or discomfort arising from pain-sensitive structures in the head. It’s the fifth most common primary complaint of patients presenting to an emergency department (ED) in the United State and patients with headache constitute up to 4.5 percent of emergency department visit and the overwhelming majority will have benign primary […]

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2018 8/Jan

Spirochetal infections Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum Yaws also called frambesia caused by Treponema pertenue Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi in the United States, B. mayonii in the upper Midwestern United States, and B. afzelii and B. garinii in Europe and Asia. Leptospirosis caused by caused by Leptospira Lyme Disease The most common vector-borne […]

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2018 5/Jan

Pancreas Divisum Pancreas divisum results from a failure of ventral and dorsal bud fusion. The ventral (Wirsung) duct drains only the ventral pancreatic anlage, whereas the majority of the gland empties into the minor papilla through the dorsal (Santorini) duct. It is the most common congenital anomaly, occurring in 4%–14% of the population, as evidenced […]

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