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2018 5/Jan

Pancreatic cancer is responsible for 7% of all cancer-related deaths, and it is now the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in both women and men. It’s considered a highly lethal disease, for which the relative 1-year survival rate for pancreatic cancer is only 28%. Patients often present with advanced disease, and at the time […]

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2018 4/Jan

The HLA-B27 allele is associated with seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SpA). The first HLA haplotype association with inflammatory disease was discovered in 1972, correlating HLA-B27 with ankylosing spondylitis. SpA includes ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, and IBD-related arthritis. SpA typically manifest with inflammatory axial or peripheral joint pain. This pain is associated with morning stiffness, is reduced […]

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2018 3/Jan

Psoriasis a chronic, noncontagious, multifactorial inflammatory skin condition. Classification Plaque psoriasis or psoriasis vulgaris Most common Well-defined erythematous plaques with scales Typically over extensor surfaces Inverse/intertriginous psoriasis Plaques with minimal scaling in skin folds (retroauricular, axillary, inframammary, inguinal, genital sites) Pustular psoriasis Pustules rather than plaques Two primary variations: Von Zumbusch is the generalized form […]

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2018 3/Jan

It is estimated that up to 170 million people around the world have been infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and among these, approximately 130 -150 million are chronically infected according to World Health Organization. HCV infection is the principal cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. HCV is a hepatotropic virus and chronic infection […]

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2017 12/Dec

Clinical Toxidromes are a group of specific signs and symptoms that suggest a particular poisoning class. Rapid recognition of a toxidrome is essential because it can determine initial management strategies. Vital signs, pupils, physical exam (abdominal examination) and mental status to help identify the toxidrome. Sympathomimetic Toxidrome/Withdrawal  Drugs:  Caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamines, Ritalin, LSD, Theophylline, […]

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2017 10/Dec

Obesity as a chronic medical condition and individualization of therapy can improve patient health rather than weight loss per se, according to AACE/ACE Guidelines published on May 24, 2016. What are the weight loss medications that are FDA-approved for long-term?    Three single drugs (Orlistat, Lorcaserin, and Liraglutide 3 mg) Two combination drugs (Phentermine/topiramate ER […]

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2017 8/Dec

Endocarditis due to Gram-negative organisms is infrequent. Gram-negative organisms are responsible for <4% of cases worldwide. Infective endocarditis caused by Gram-negative bacteria is a severe disease and presents a high rate of complications and high mortality. It often has a nosocomial origin, and it is caused by resistant organisms. HACEK organisms include: Haemophilus species Actinobacillus […]

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2017 6/Dec

Cephalosporins are β-lactam antibiotics (penicillin-family) with bactericidal effect. They disrupt cell synthesis by inhibiting enzymes in the cell wall of bacteria. There are five generations of cephalosporins. First-generation cephalosporins are most active against gram-positive bacteria, particularly Staphylococcus aureus. Second-generation cephalosporins are often used for polymicrobial infections that include gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci. Third-generation cephalosporins have excellent […]

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