It is estimated that up to 170 million people around the world have been infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and among these, approximately 130 -150 million are chronically infected according to World Health Organization. HCV infection is the principal cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. HCV is a hepatotropic virus and chronic infection ultimately leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
HCV infection is also associated with polymorphous. Extrahepatic manifestations, which add to the morbidity and mortality burden of HCV.
Most commonly occurring extrahepatic manifestations in patients with HCV infections are:
- Arthralgias (23%)
- Paraesthesias (17%)
- Myalgias (15%)
- Pruritus (15%)
- Sicca syndrome (11%)
Risk factors for C Hepatitis associated systemic manifestations include:
- Advanced age
- Female sex
- Liver fibrosis
HCV is the most common cause of cryoglobulinemia, and around 50% of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection are affected during their clinical course of the disease.
Neoplasias associated with chronic hepatitis C disease:
- Non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma
- MALT syndrome
- Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue
- Cacoub P, Comarmond C, Domont F, Savey L, Desbois AC, Saadoun D. Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease. 2016;3(1):3-14. doi:10.1177/2049936115585942. (link)
- Sherman AC, Sherman KE. Extrahepatic Manifestations of Hepatitis C Infection: Navigating CHASM. Current HIV/AIDS reports. 2015;12(3):353-361. doi:10.1007/s11904-015-0274-8. (link)
- Negro F, Esmat G. Extrahepatic manifestations in hepatitis C virus infection. Journal of Advanced Research. 2017;8(2):85-87. doi:10.1016/j.jare.2016.08.004. (link)
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