- Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum
- Yaws also called frambesia caused by Treponema pertenue
- Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi in the United States, B. mayonii in the upper Midwestern United States, and B. afzelii and B. garinii in Europe and Asia.
- Leptospirosis caused by caused by Leptospira
The most common vector-borne disease in the United States, is a multisystem illness usually caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi.
- Conjunctivitis (uncommon, never prominent)
- Carditis (usually manifests as heart block)
- Meningismus as a sign of aseptic meningitis
- Cranial neuropathy, especially cranial nerve VII and Bell palsy (peripheral seventh nerve palsy with decreased unilateral function, including the forehead)
- In patients with late disease, the typical physical finding is arthritis.
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