My Blog Posts

2018 10/Jul

Hemoglobin (Heme + Globin) is a heterotetramer composed of four polypeptide subunits (2 α and 2 β), each with a prosthetic heme group plus a globin chain. The heme group is formed of a heterocyclic ring, known as a porphyrin which contains an iron (Fe) atom in its center. Usually, the Fe is in the […]

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2018 20/May

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome resulting from the inappropriate activation of blood coagulation and formation of microvascular thrombi. During the process, consumption of platelets and coagulation factor occur. In some cases, activation of the fibrinolytic pathway may cause severe bleeding. If sufficiently severe, DIC can produce multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Commonly patients with DIC have alterations in […]

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2018 21/Feb

Anemia is strictly defined as a decrease in red blood cell (RBC) mass or blood hemoglobin concentration. The prevalence of anemia in population studies of healthy, nonpregnant people depends on the hemoglobin (Hb) levels chosen for the lower limit of normal values. The World Health Organization (WHO) anemia definition is Hb levels <12.0 g/dL in women and […]

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2018 6/Feb

Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma-2gene) is a member of Bcl-2 family, which contains Bcl-2, Bcl-xi, Bax, Bak, Bid, and Bad. Bcl-2, localized mainly on the outer membrane of the mitochondrion, is a very important antiapoptosis factor, by preventing the release of cytochrome C and then restraining the activation of the caspase, which is crucial for cell apoptosis. […]

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2018 28/Jan

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) ) represents the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Tumors are slow growing and usually located in the stomach or small intestine. In the United States, an estimated 4000 to 5000 new cases of GISTs are diagnosed annually. Data on worldwide frequency are limited, but in general, GISTs […]

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2018 17/Jan

Definition: severe elevation in WBC (> 50,000 cells/mm³) caused by reactive causes outside the bone marrow. It’s a normal physiologic response to infection or stress. The diagnostic workup consists of the exclusion of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and the detection of an underlying cause. The diagnosis characteristics are marked mature […]

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2018 15/Jan

The differences between RBBB and LBBB in ECG are more simple than you imagine!. Just follow two simple steps: QRS duration greater than or equal to 120 ms in adults (>0.12 sec or >3 small boxes), greater than 100 ms in children 4 to 16 years of age, and greater than 90 ms in children […]

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2018 15/Jan

Classical findings of Pericarditis in ECG are: Diffuse ST-segment elevation and PR-segment depression ST-segment depression in aVR or V1 Low voltage, classically defined as total amplitude of the QRS complex less than 0.5 mv in the limb leads and less than 1 mv in the precordial leads Absence of reciprocal ST-segment changes For more ECG […]

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2018 11/Jan

Headache is defining as a pain or discomfort arising from pain-sensitive structures in the head. It’s the fifth most common primary complaint of patients presenting to an emergency department (ED) in the United State and patients with headache constitute up to 4.5 percent of emergency department visit and the overwhelming majority will have benign primary […]

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2018 5/Jan

Pancreatic cancer is responsible for 7% of all cancer-related deaths, and it is now the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in both women and men. It’s considered a highly lethal disease, for which the relative 1-year survival rate for pancreatic cancer is only 28%. Patients often present with advanced disease, and at the time […]

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