My Blog Posts

2018 20/May

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome resulting from the inappropriate activation of blood coagulation and formation of microvascular thrombi. During the process, consumption of platelets and coagulation factor occur. In some cases, activation of the fibrinolytic pathway may cause severe bleeding. If sufficiently severe, DIC can produce multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Commonly patients with DIC have alterations in […]

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2018 21/Feb

Anemia is strictly defined as a decrease in red blood cell (RBC) mass or blood hemoglobin concentration. The prevalence of anemia in population studies of healthy, nonpregnant people depends on the hemoglobin (Hb) levels chosen for the lower limit of normal values. The World Health Organization (WHO) anemia definition is Hb levels <12.0 g/dL in women and […]

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2018 16/Feb

The cell is the basic unit with cell membrane that contains the fundamental molecules of life. All living things are composed of cells, and an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function. Individual organelles are usually separately enclosed within their own lipid bilayers. Cilia and Kartagener syndrome It’s a variant of […]

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2018 6/Feb

Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma-2gene) is a member of Bcl-2 family, which contains Bcl-2, Bcl-xi, Bax, Bak, Bid, and Bad. Bcl-2, localized mainly on the outer membrane of the mitochondrion, is a very important antiapoptosis factor, by preventing the release of cytochrome C and then restraining the activation of the caspase, which is crucial for cell apoptosis. […]

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2018 28/Jan

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) ) represents the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Tumors are slow growing and usually located in the stomach or small intestine. In the United States, an estimated 4000 to 5000 new cases of GISTs are diagnosed annually. Data on worldwide frequency are limited, but in general, GISTs […]

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2018 25/Jan

Apoptosis is a specialized form of programmed cell death, characterized by lack of inflammatory response. It is an active process regulated by proteins that often affects only single cells or small groups of cells. So, what is the biochemical pathway leading to apoptosis? Activation of caspases cascade. Caspase activation is the crucial step because caspases […]

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2018 5/Jan

Pancreas Divisum Pancreas divisum results from a failure of ventral and dorsal bud fusion. The ventral (Wirsung) duct drains only the ventral pancreatic anlage, whereas the majority of the gland empties into the minor papilla through the dorsal (Santorini) duct. It is the most common congenital anomaly, occurring in 4%–14% of the population, as evidenced […]

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2017 12/Dec

Clinical Toxidromes are a group of specific signs and symptoms that suggest a particular poisoning class. Rapid recognition of a toxidrome is essential because it can determine initial management strategies. Vital signs, pupils, physical exam (abdominal examination) and mental status to help identify the toxidrome. Sympathomimetic Toxidrome/Withdrawal  Drugs:  Caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamines, Ritalin, LSD, Theophylline, […]

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2017 8/Dec

Endocarditis due to Gram-negative organisms is infrequent. Gram-negative organisms are responsible for <4% of cases worldwide. Infective endocarditis caused by Gram-negative bacteria is a severe disease and presents a high rate of complications and high mortality. It often has a nosocomial origin, and it is caused by resistant organisms. HACEK organisms include: Haemophilus species Actinobacillus […]

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2017 6/Dec

Cephalosporins are β-lactam antibiotics (penicillin-family) with bactericidal effect. They disrupt cell synthesis by inhibiting enzymes in the cell wall of bacteria. There are five generations of cephalosporins. First-generation cephalosporins are most active against gram-positive bacteria, particularly Staphylococcus aureus. Second-generation cephalosporins are often used for polymicrobial infections that include gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci. Third-generation cephalosporins have excellent […]

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